Centenaire de 1914-1918: le très dissuasif fort de Mutzig

Par Aymeric Robert, France Bleu Alsace lundi 28 juillet 2014 à 19:10

Fort de Mutzig 1, vue aérienne
Fort de Mutzig 1, vue aérienne © Creative commons - Franck Burckel

Construit par les Allemands dès 1893, le fort de Mutzig, situé à 20 km de Strasbourg est la première fortification moderne de l'histoire, capable de résister aux nouveaux obus de l'époque. Résultat, les soldats français ne peuvent s'en approcher. En 1918, quand ils peuvent enfin y pénétrer, ils découvrent des innovations techniques insoupçonnées.

Le fort de Mutzig est la première fortification moderne de l'histoire: pour la première fois, on introduit du béton, de l'acier et du courant électrique. Le téléphone arrive même en 1899. Le fort de Mutzig est une véritable petite ville où vivent de 6.000 à 7.000 hommes répartis dans près de 300 chambres. La fortification éclatée en une cinquantaine d'ouvrages occupe pas moins de 250 hectares.

Fort de Mutzig 1, dortoir - Maxppp
Fort de Mutzig 1, dortoir © Maxppp

De longs couloirs relient les différents sites. A l'intérieur, la chaleur (environ 30 degrés), l'humidité, les odeurs (les douches sont rares et l'aération peu performante), la très faible luminosité (ampoules de 15 watts) rendent les conditions de vie des soldats allemands difficiles.

Fort de Mutzig 1, les toilettes - Aucun(e)
Fort de Mutzig 1, les toilettes - Calips

Sur le plan militaire, le fort a bien rempli son rôle puisque les Français n'ont jamais réussi à passer. Ils parviennent début août 1914 à avancer dans le secteur et même à arracher le premier drapeau pris à l'ennemi pendant la guerre. Mais à 10 km de la forteresse, ils doivent s'arrêter. Le 18 août 1914, le fort tire près de 300 coups de canons en direction des Français, qui abandonnent la position et tentent alors de passer vers le sud (batailles du Linge et du Hartmannswillerkopf). Le caractère dissuasif du fort a ainsi limité toute vélléité française de se rapprocher de Strasbourg.

14-18 SON Fort Mutzig

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Signature Grande Guerre Grand Est
](http://www.francebleu.fr/infos/le-centenaire-de-14-18-dans-le-grand-est-1675449)

Clone of 14-18 SON Fort Mutzig ok